Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Hematuria, or the presence of blood in urine, can be an alarming symptom indicative of various underlying conditions. It is essential to understand its causes, symptoms, and treatment options to ensure timely medical intervention. Consulting a specialized urologist can provide comprehensive diagnosis and treatment for hematuria. 

About Hematuria 

Hematuria is classified into two types: 

  1. Gross Hematuria: When blood is visible in the urine, giving it a pink, red, or cola-colored appearance. 
  2. Microscopic Hematuria: When blood is not visible to the naked eye but is detected under a microscope or through a urine test.

Hematuria can affect individuals of all ages and can result from various medical conditions. 

Symptoms of Hematuria 

The primary symptom of hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. However, other symptoms may accompany it depending on the underlying cause, including: 

  • Painful urination 
  • Frequent urination 
  • Urgency to urinate 
  • Abdominal or flank pain 
  • Fever (if an infection is present) 

Causes of Blood in the Urine 

Several conditions can cause hematuria, including: 

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Bacteria entering the urinary tract can cause infections, leading to hematuria along with pain and frequent urination. 
  2. Kidney Infections: Infections that start in the bladder and spread to the kidneys can cause similar symptoms to UTIs but are often more severe. 
  3. Bladder or Kidney Stones: These hard deposits can irritate the urinary tract, causing pain and bleeding. 
  4. Enlarged Prostate: In men, an enlarged prostate can press on the urethra and cause blood in the urine. 
  5. Kidney Disease: Conditions like glomerulonephritis can cause kidney inflammation and bleeding. 
  6. Cancer: Tumors in the bladder, kidney, or prostate can cause hematuria. 
  7. Inherited Disorders: Conditions like sickle cell anemia and Alport syndrome can affect the kidneys and urinary tract. 
  8. Medications: Certain drugs, like blood thinners and some pain relievers, can cause urinary bleeding. 
  9. Exercise: Intense exercise can lead to temporary hematuria, particularly in endurance athletes.

Diagnosis of Hematuria

Diagnosing the cause of hematuria involves several steps: 

  1. Medical History and Physical Exam: A thorough review of symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. 
  2. Urine Tests: Urinalysis can detect the presence of blood and identify signs of infection or other abnormalities. 
  3. Imaging Tests: Ultrasound, CT scans, or MRIs can help visualize the kidneys, bladder, and urinary tract. 
  4. Cystoscopy: A procedure where a thin, flexible tube with a camera is inserted into the bladder to look for abnormalities. 
  5. Blood Tests: These can help identify underlying kidney problems or other systemic conditions.

Treatment Options for Hematuria 

Treatment for hematuria depends on its cause: 

  1. Infections: Antibiotics are prescribed to treat UTIs or kidney infections. 
  2. Stones: Treatment may involve increasing fluid intake, pain management, or procedures to break up or remove stones. 
  3. Enlarged Prostate: Medications or surgical procedures can help reduce prostate size and alleviate symptoms. 
  4. Cancer: Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the cancer type and stage. 
  5. Kidney Disease: Managing underlying kidney conditions involves medications, lifestyle changes, and monitoring. 
  6. Medications: Adjusting or changing medicines that cause hematuria.

In cases where the cause of hematuria is not immediately clear, regular monitoring and follow-up tests may be necessary to ensure there is no progression of a serious underlying condition. 


Hematuria is a symptom that should never be ignored. Understanding its potential causes and seeking timely medical advice can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of underlying conditions, preventing complications and ensuring better health outcomes. If you experience any signs of blood in your urine, consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and appropriate management. 

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